Vocabulary Substitutes

Vocabulary Substitutes

vocabulary-substitutes

1- Think Over It:
1- Give it some thought
2-Consider it for a while
3- Make up your mind
4- Please give it your consideration

2- Postpone It:
1- Can we wait on that?
2- Can I have a rein check on that?
3- Get back to you later
4- Put it off to some other time

3- Just Wait:
1- Hold your horses
2- Hang on
3- Hold a moment
4- Wait up!

4- How Are You?
1- How’re you doing?
2- How have you been?
3- How do you do?
4- Are you all right?

5- What Are You Thinking About?
1- What’s on your mind?
2- You seem a little pre-occupied.
3- Is something bothering you?
4- You seem to be in good spirits.

6- I’m Sorry:
1- I beg your pardon
2- I apologize
3- Please forgive/excuse me
4- I really regret

7- Please Repeat:
1- What did u say?
2- I’m not getting your point.
3- Could you please say it again?
4- Would you mind repeating that?

8- I Don’t Care:
1- I’m indifferent.
2- What does it matter?
3- Who gives a damn?
4- So what?

9- Not Interested:
1- I’m not willing to do that.
2- I wanna give it up.
3- I’m fed up and want to quit.
4- I’m sick of.

10- Let’s Start:
1- Get going
2- Let’s get cracking
3- Move on this right away.
4- Get on this immediately.

11- You’re Answerable:
1- You are liable.
2- You will be held accountable.
3- It is responsibility on your part.
4- You must be duty bound.

12- Be Silent:
1- Keep quiet
2- Please hush up
3- Don’t make a noise
4- Repose quietly

13- I’m Worried:
1- I’m anxious
2- It makes me thoughtful
3- I’m under stress
4- It is quite sorrowful

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Active & Passive Voice Rules

Active Voice and Passive Voice Rules – Easy way to learn active voice and passive voice

active-voice-passive-voice-rules

ACTIVE VOICE:

When using the active voice, the subjects are the ones performing the action.

God loves all men.
Birds build nests.
Dog eats bones.

In these three sentences the subject does the action. Hence they are in the active avoice.

PASSIVE VOICE:

In the passive voice, the verb takes an object.

All men are loved by God.
Nests are built by birds.
Bones are eaten by dog.

These sentences are in passive voice. The Passive voice is used in English

(a) To stress the action done rather than the doer of the action
(b) If the doer is unknown
(c) When it is more convenient.

How to Covert Active Voice sentences into Passive Voice:

First move the object in the active voice to the subject position. Use the appropriate ‘be’ verb (is/am/are/was/were/has been/have been/shall be/will be)

active-voice-passive-voice-table

How to form passive forms of verbs?

how-to-form-passive-forms-of-verbs

Changes of Pronouns:

changes-of-pronouns

Rules for changing Active Voice into Passive Voice:

  • Identify the subject, the verb and the object: SVO
  • Change the object into subject
  • Put the suitable helping verb or auxiliary verb. In case helping verb is given, use the same. But note that the helping verb given agrees with the object.
  • Change the verb into past participle of the verb.
  • Add the preposition “by”
  • Change the subject into object.

rules-of-changing-active-passive-voice

Imperative Sentence :

If the given sentence in the active voice is in the imperative, to get the passive voice use ‘Let’. Hence Passive Voice = Let + Object + be + Past Participle

Imperative-Sentence

Questions in the Passive :

If the question in the Active Voice begins with a Helping verb the Passive voice must also begin with a suitable helping verb. Supposing the question begins with ‘Wh or How’ form (what, when, how …) the Passive Voice must begin with the same.

questions-in-the-passive-voice

Sentences with two objects:

If a sentence contains two objects namely Indirect Object and Direct Object in the Active Voice, two forms of Passive Voice Continue reading

Active & Passive Voice

Active & Passive Voice

active-voice-passive-voice

Active Voice:
When a subject is doing something (Subject is active), it is called Active Voice.
Examples:
He writes a letter.
Cats drink milk etc.

Passive Voice:
When Subject is action receiver rather than action doer (Subject is Passive) and the Object comes first, it is called Passive Voice.
Examples:
A letter is written by me.
Milk is drunk by cats.

Sentence-Structure of Active Voice:
Sentence-Structure of Active Voice is same as a simple sentence has.
Subject + Verb + Preposition + Object + Adverb
(Preposition and Adverb are not necessary but if they exist, their place will be the one as described)

Sentence-Structure of Passive Voice:
Now see the difference of structure given below:
Object + Helping Verb + 3rd Form of Verb + Preposition + By + Subject + Adverb
This structure is followed by the Passive Voice. Once you learn it, you can convert every active voice into passive voice.
While converting Active Voice into Passive Voice, two changes are must i.e. Helping Verb and 3rd Form.

Role of Helping Verb in Passive Voice:
Actually the Helping Verb to be used in Passive Voice is only one i.e. “Be”. Its forms are used with respect to Principle (Main) Verb of Active Voice.

Following table explains which ones are the forms of “Be” with respect to different tenses.

tenses-english-

There are only Eight tenses used in Passive Voice because as from the table is obvious, there can’t be formed Passive Voice of Future Continuous and Future Perfect Continuous tense. (You can try on your own)

Some Rules for Conversion:
You have to focus on the use of Helping Verb in Passive Voice keeping in mind the Main Verb in Active Voice.

1- If the form of verb is 1st in Active Voice, then use first forms of “Be” i.e. is (For Singulars), are (For Plurals), and am (For I”)
Example:
I pluck a flower.
A flower is plucked by me.

2- If 2nd form of verb is there in Active Voice, then use 2nd form of “Be” i.e. Was (For Singulars) and Were (For Plurals)
Example:
I plucked a flower.
A flower was plucked by me.

3- If the form of verb is 1st in Active Voice and “will or shall” is used with it, then use will (with He, she, it, they and any name) and shall (with First Person i.e. I, we) and then apply first forms of “Be” same as it is means “Be”.
Example:
I shall pluck a flower.
A flower will be picked by me.

4- There is always 3rd form in all the Perfect Tenses, so add 3rd form of “Be” i.e. “Been” and use has for singulars, have for plurals and had for all in past perfect in their Passive Voice.
Examples:
I have plucked a flower.
A flower has been plucked by me.
I had plucked a flower.
A flower had been plucked by me.
I had plucked a flower.
I shall have plucked a flower.
A flower will have been plucked by me.

5- When you find 1st form with “ing” in Active Voice, simply add “ing” with “Be” i.e. Being.
Examples:
I am plucking a flower.
A flower is being plucked by me.
I was plucking a flower.
A flower was being plucked by me.

6- Now look at the following sentence.
I shall be plucking a flower.
A flower will be being plucked by me.
Here the structure goes wrong because “Be” and “Being” can not be used together, that’s why there is no passive voice of Future Continuous Tense. Same is the case with all Perfect Continuous Tenses.

Imperative Sentences:

As you studied earlier, Imperative Sentences include advice, request, order or prohibition. The structure of these sentences is somewhat different, so the Passive Voice will also be different. Observe the following Sentence-Structure:

Active Voice for Imperatives:
Verb + Preposition + Object + Adverb

Passive Voice for Imperatives:
Let + Object + be + 3rd Form + Preposition + Adverb
There is no subject in Imperative sentences and remember, if the verb comes first in a sentence, then always 1st form of verb is used. So in Passive Voice, “By” and “Subject” are omitted because in its Active Voice, there was no action doer.
Example:
Knock at the door quickly.
Let the door be knocked at, quickly.

if you want to learn active voice passive voice in full details, pls visit Active Voice and Passive Voice Rules

Common Mistakes in English

08 Common Mistakes in English

common-mistakes-in-english

Generally it is said that while speaking, Grammar mistakes are not considered but there are certain mistakes which leave a bad impression upon the audience and can be overcome with a little effort. Even many native English people are not aware of such major mistakes. Below are some of mistakes which should be taken care of:

1- Use of Second Form of Verb:
Many people use second form of verb with the word “did”, it is common mistake but ponder over the concept that “did” is already second form of helping verb, so with it, we have to use first form of verb.
Example:
Did you received the book? ———–? Incorrect
Did you receive the book ——–? Correct

2- Use of “Its and It is”:
“Its” is used for possession whereas “It is” is shortened as “It’s” while speaking fluently but notice that generally Apostrophe Sign is used for possession but here it’s quite opposite. Its use is not for possession over here.
Example:
It is my laptop.
Its price is 40 thousand rupees.

3- Use of “The”:
As described in definition of Articles, “The” is used with Common Noun to make it specific i.e. when we are going to refer something or you can say that when something has been narrated before and we want to mention it e.g.
Example:
It is a book. The book is on the table.

4- Use of “Since/For”:
These are the words used for timing. “Since” is used for some fixed time and “For” is used for some time, we are not sure about. But with both these timing prepositions, “Been” or 3rd form of verb is must.
Example:
He has been living in Lahore since 1996.
I have written his article for the past four hours.

5- Use of “Then & Than”:
“Then” is adverb that we use to emphasize while “Than” is used for comparison between two nouns. It is most common mistake and many senior persons don’t know it.
Example:
They had a lunch and then they started traveling.
She is more genius than Sana.

you may also like read: Common Grammar Mistakes in English

6- Use of “I’:
This is an important thing to keep in mind that when we use “I” as Pronoun, it is always written as capital whether it comes in the start, centre or end of the sentence whereas we use words Continue reading

Common Grammar Mistakes in English

5 Common Grammar Mistakes Intermediate English Speakers Make

common-grammar-mistakes

In this article you’re going to see a list of some of the most common mistakes I see intermediate and even sometimes advanced English speakers make both in writing and speaking.

Making mistakes is great as long as you can learn from them, but sometimes you might even not be aware you’re making a mistake.

With this article you’ll reconnect with the practice of learning from your mistakes as I’ll show you how to properly use some of the structures that might be giving you a hard time.

Also, you’ll find out about some of those mistakes you don’t even know you’re making!

This article is especially useful for intermediate and even low advanced English speakers. We will work to keep those mistakes from fossilizing in your way of speaking.

1. Articles Before the Possessive S

You can use articles (the – a/an) before a noun with a possessive S, as in:

> The world’s best athletes met in Rio 2016.
> A man‘s brain is different from a woman‘s.

However, you can’t use articles when the possessive s modifies a proper noun (i.e. a person’s name). This is the mistake many make.

> I drove the John’s car.

possessive-s-grammer-mistake

See below another recurring mistake relating the possessive s:

> John’s and Sarah’s car. (incorrect)
> John and Sarah’s car. (correct)
> Matt’s and Nick’s project. (incorrect)
> Matt and Nick’s project. (correct)

On the other hand, the grammar of the following structure isn’t so much a recurring mistake, but rather a pattern that’s avoided because of it’s difficulty.

> Andrew‘s dog is a Labrador, what’s Emma‘s?

What’s Emma’s? refers to what breed Emma’s dog is, but you don’t need to repeat dog since it’s already been mentioned. This is called ellipsis, the omission of unnecessary or redundant words. Another example:

> Stephan‘s learning style is not the same as Tim‘s.

Being able to speak sentences like these without even thinking will add a lot to your fluency.

2. Misplacing “to”

“Not to want to do something” is correct, but “to don’t want to do it” is not.

On the other hand, although “to not want to do something” is correct, it is not as common as to “not to want to do something.” Whenever you’re confused which form to use, thinking of Shakespeare’s famous quote will probably help:

“To be or not to be…

Consider how it would have sounded if he had said to be or to not be.

Going back to the faulty “to don’t…” here are some more examples to compare:

not-to-grammar-mistake

Another common grammar structure with ‘to‘ intermediate as well as advanced speaker have a hard time using is the following:

> She didn’t come home at the time her parents told her to.
> I didn’t go because I didn’t want to.

you may also like read: Common Mistakes in English

The mistake you might be making is either omitting “to” completely or repeating a verb within the same sentence.

> She didn’t come home at the time her parents told her. (‘to’ is missing)
> I didn’t go because I didn’t want to go. (‘go’ should have been omitted)

3. Indirect and Reported Questions

This is a direct question:

> What’s the time?

This is an indirect Continue reading

How to Learn English?

How to Learn English?

how-to-learn-english

English is our international language and it is need of the time to focus on learning English especially. Learning English is not as tough as is supposed to be. In fact, every language takes time and practice to learn but you feel English difficult because you don’t have environment of English generally.

Communication Skills:
There are four basic skills of communication which matter whatever language we want to learn i.e. Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking. All are equally important but its nature of man that he learns more through listening from his surroundings and using the same words then. These skills will be explained in detail.

Learn Through Listening & Speaking:
Our proficiency depends upon basic communication skills and it is rightly said that out of these basic skills, listening and speaking comprise about 69% of total communication.

Here are some 18 suggestions useful and easy to implement. Just apply these tips in your daily life and see the difference:

1- Overcome Your Hesitation:
The first and foremost thing is to put your hesitation aside. Many of us are those who are well-qualified and have studied English Language throughout 10 to 14 years of their educational period and know the basics of English but feel it difficult to express in English before others. So keep in mind, the most important thing when you speak in English is that you have to feel that you are not hesitant and will express your thoughts freely. You are really not less than others but thinking makes it so. So make your thinking strong.

2- Every Word Should Be Clear:
In the initial stage of your learning, when you speak, your every word should be clear because most of people are nervous, not calm and cool while speaking. So try to utter all the words quite clear that you and your audience can understand it easily.

3- Don’t Repeat Any Word:
In haste, people repeat the words or sentences many times. Remember, it doesn’t leave a good impact upon the audience, rather irritates others.

4- Give Gap or Keep Silent When Feel Difficult:
Instead of repetition of words, when the suitable words are not coming in your mind, give gap, keep silent, think and then speak. Try it; you will really improve your skills.

5- Use Some Habitual Sentence:
In the start, it is very handy that you use some Habitual Sentence most of the time, for example, I mean, you know, I think etc. It is helpful in the sense that your mind can select the word meanwhile.

6- Don’t Be Hasty:
Be confident and relaxed. Speak in calm voice. Nobody is running after you. It takes time in learning any language. It is well-known proverb, “slow but steady wins the race”.

7- Use Short and Simple Sentences:
Try to use short and simple sentences. Don’t be involved in the selection of high vocabulary because it will shake your confidence and will affect your fluency.

8- Record Your Voice & Listen What You Improved:
In the beginning, you have to observe what have you improved with the passage of time. So it is the best way to judge your improvement that you record your voice (in your mobile phone or PC) and listen to it. Every time you listen, you should notice, is there any change in fluency and accent or not?

9- Learn Pronunciation from Dictionary:
Sometimes you can not express your thoughts in English because you feel that the word you are going to use may be incorrectly pronounced by you and you are shy to utter it. It is better if you install some dictionary in which you can hear pronunciation of words. You can start listening pronunciation of words from its first page or whenever you need to know the exact pronunciation, you can consult it. It is very handy tool in getting skills and will boost your confidence.

10- Learn The Intonation/Accent/Dialect:
Every language has its own intonation or accent. You are not a native English Speaker, so your accent or dialect will Continue reading

7 Cs of Communication

7 Cs of Communication

7-cs-of-communication

For better understanding of written (Letter, application or any other thing) and verbal communication, there are seven points to be kept in mind, since every point starts from English Alphabet “C”, so these are known as 7 Cs of Communication. Remember these Cs to convey your message in an impressive way. Its explanation is as under:

7-cs-of-communication-

1- Completeness:
It is the most important point whether you are going to communicate in written or spoken, your message should be complete in the sense that all the necessary details are provided and there is no ambiguity in the message you want to convey. No important point should be missed.

2- Conciseness:
Conciseness as from the name is obvious means to use least possible words but in full complete message. You should communicate the matter to the point only. It is time-saving as well as cost-saving. It shows that the main message is short and essential one because you use limited words in comprehensive manner which are also non-repetitive in nature.

3- Consideration:
Consideration means to communicate from the audience point of view and use the statements according to the discussion background. It depends upon the mind-set and education level of audience. Remember their self-respect should not be degraded in any way. Take care that their emotions are not at harm. Modify your words in message to suit the audience’s needs or it can be said that “You” approach is given priority under this head. Give your opinion but discuss in such a way that exhibits interest of all others. Show optimism e.g. “what is possible” rather than “what is impossible”. Use positive words such as jovial (joyful) committed, thanks, warm, healthy, help, etc.

4- Clarity:
Clarity means to use clear words that are easier with respect to the understanding of people whom you are talking to. It enhances the meaning of message. Try to convey appropriate and clear words, not ambiguous that can mislead other.

5- Concreteness:
It is 5th C of communication which means to be particular and explicit (clear) rather than fuzzy and general. Concreteness strengthens the confidence. You are required to use certain facts and figures and add images while writing. It plays a vital role in building your nice reputation otherwise your message may be misinterpreted. Don’t use abstract words. Your approach should be Denotative rather than Connotative.

6- Courtesy:
It means that try to convey your message sincerely in a polite, judicious, reflective and enthusiastic way. It also demands that your statement is positive and focused at the targeted audience but it doesn’t mean that there is some kind of favoritism involved, it should not be biased.

7- Correctness:
This is the last C of communication and very simple and obvious i.e. there should be no grammatical errors in sentences you make. Your message must be exact, correct and well-timed. It will boost up your confidence level and has a greater impact upon participants of the discussion.

Awareness of these 7 C’s of communication makes you an effective communicator.

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